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Mar 26

Reformasi versus Budaya Organisasi

reformasi20birokrasiPK BLU – Para akademisi dan praktisi sering menyuarakan reformasi birokrasi pada institusi-institusi pemerintah. Hal ini disebabkan karena mereka melihat adanya kelemahan pada struktur, sistem dan proses kerja yang tidak hanya menyebabkan kebanyakan organisasi sektor publik kurang lincah (agility) dalam membuat keputusan namun juga tidak berorientasi pada masyarakat yang dilayani. Oleh karena itu, dalam beberapa dekade terakhir, pemerintah mulai menerapkan prinsip baru dalam pengelolaan kinerja lembaga pemerintah yang dikenal dengan the New Public Management atau Konsep Baru Pengelolaan Kepemerintahan. Dalam paradigma baru tersebut, aparatur pemerintah diminta untuk merubah pola pikir (mindset) dari yang sebelumnya menerapkan budaya administrator menjadi budaya kinerja. Dengan adanya perubahan tersebut, setiap kepala eksekutif intansi dituntut mempunyai pengetahuan yang memadai dalam menetapkan secara jelas sasaran, tujuan dan target yang akan dicapai oleh organisasi yang dipimpinnya. Meskipun demikian, budaya organisasi seperti clan power dan rule culture yang sudah sangat mengakar pada diri para pegawai tampaknya sangat sulit dirubah. Dalam budaya tersebut, para pegawai sudah mapan dengan pandangan bahwa keputusan pemimpin adalah yang paling tepat sehingga kelihatannya adalah tabu bila dikritisi. Begitu juga dengan rule culture, para bawahan seolah-olah sudah nyaman dengan pola kerja dengan cara menunggu perintah dari atasan. Jika atasan tidak berada di kantor, bawahan akan lebih leluasa dalam memanfaatkan waktu untuk hal-hal yang tidak berhubungan dengan kepentingan dinas. Lebih buruk lagi adalah adanya pandangan anggota organisasi “jika bisamenunda suatu pekerjaan untuk hari esok mengapa harus dikerjakan sekarang?.” Sedikit perbandingan dengan negara Australia, bahkan untuk membuka jejaring sosial pada saat bekerja adalah sesuatu yang tabu dan apabila ketahuan oleh supervisor, pegawai dimaksud bisa mendapat penalti. Jika budaya-budaya seperti ini masih ada dalam Konsep Baru Pengelolaan Kepemerintahan, itu sama saja dengan mengecat sebuah rumah tanpa mengganti perabot-perabotnya yang sesuai dengan keinginan pemilik.

Sekalipun para pimpinan organisasi mengupayakan reformasi melalui prinsip the New Public Management seperti managerialisme, pembuatan rencana strategis, penetapan visi dan misi organisasi serta penerapan pengukuran kinerja instansi, namun bila budaya yang bersifat ‘clan (power)’ serta ‘rule’ tidak diubah terlebih dahulu kepada budaya yang mendukung prinsip-prinsip NPM , kemungkinan besar praktek kerja lembaga-lembaga pemerintah dalam rangka peningkatan efisiensi dan efekitivitas akan sulit tercapai. Intinya, sebelum melakukan transformasi kelembagaan, alangkah baiknya pimpinan organisasi publik mematahkan budaya-budaya organisasi yang tidak mendukung prinsip kerja baru yang akan diimplementasikan.

oleh : Mangappu Pasaribu



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